Biocomputers Seminar report
Biocomputers are computers that use biologically derived molecules such as protein and DNA to perform computational calculations.These calculations comprises of storage,retrieval and data processing applications.For newer generations, bio-computing will result in a great success particularly in areas of molecular electronics and nanotechnology. In the Nanotechnology, nano sized (1-100 nanometres) materials and biological materials are used.One more definition for nanotechnology is the design and engineering of proteins assembled into larger,functional structures. Besides the computational ,logical and mathematical applications,various functional capabilities are possessed in biocomputers. While designing semiconductors,decrease in size of the silicon affect processor speed.This low speed is the limitation faced by earlier inventions which leads to the development of blending biology with technology like biocomputers.
Tom Knight at MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory suggested that in biocomputers, protein concentrations are used as binary signals for performing logical operations.The operation completely depends on the biomolecule concentration being used. For example certain concentration of protein will indicate either 1 or 0 (binary), the change in concentration will change the binary status from either 0 to 1 or vice versa and thus performs logical operations.W.L.Ditto suggested that in biocomputers, leech neurons are capable of performing simple addition and other simple mathematical calculations.For computational purposes,behind every idea molecular reactions are used.
Biocomputers consists of biochips, which are silicon-based computers not used in normal computers. This biochip consists of biomaterial such as nucleic acid,enzymes, etc. Biocomputer acts as a massively parallel computer and contain huge data storage capability.So biocomputers are usually employed to solve NP complete problems with higher efficiency.The development of biocomputer technology lead to a credit card size computer that handle super efficient global air traffic control system.The nanobiotechnology implementation provides the ability to engineer biomolecular systems so that they interact and ultimately result in the computational functionality of a computer.
In biocomputer, computational functions are performed with biologically derived materials. A biocomputer contains an input system consists of a pathway or series of metabolic pathways involving biologic materials.The output obtained from the result of pathway of reactions based on its engineering design and computational analysis interpretation.There are three distinguishable types of biocomputers: biochemical computers, biomechanical computers and bioelectronic computers.
In biochemical computers, various feedback loops are the characteristics to achieve functionality in computation. Feedback loops provide positive and negative feedback to a particular biochemical process within many forms and many different factors. These loop may result in either increase or decrease in the output quantity. It include catalytic enzymes,reactants,products and molecules to alter any of their chemical reactivity. The presence of a product in a pathway serve as a signal which are interpretable with other chemical signals and used as a computational output based upon the starting chemical conditions of the system input.
In bio-mechanical computers,a specific output that can be interpreted as a functional computation based upon specific initial conditions which serve as input same as biochemical computers.Both differ in the output signal. The mechanical shape of a specific molecule or set of molecules under a set of initial conditions serves as the output in biomechanical while in biochemical computers the presence or concentration of certain chemicals serves as the output signal. Bio mechanical computers rely on the nature of specific molecules to adopt certain physical configurations under certain chemical conditions. The mechanical, three-dimensional structure of the product of the bio mechanical computer is detected and interpreted appropriately as a calculated output.
In bio electronic computers, electronic computing is performed. Like bio mechanical and biochemical computers, computations are performed by interpreting a specific output that is based on initial set of conditions that serve as input. The measured output is the nature of the electrical conductivity that is observed in the bio-electronic computer, which comprises specifically designed bio-molecules that conduct electricity in highly specific manners based upon the initial conditions that serve as the input of the bio electronic system.
Biologically derived computational system's behavior depend on protein and DNA molecules. The system can be created using nanotechnology and synthesize multiple chemical components. The chemical building block of proteins called amino acids detect the chemical nature of protein. This sequence is dictated by a specific sequence of DNA nucleotides the building blocks of DNA molecules.Proteins synthesized through the translation of nucleotide sequence by biological molecules called ribosomes which assemble individual amino acids into polypeptides that form functional proteins based on the nucleotide sequence that ribosomes interprets. The chemical components necessary to serve as a biological system capable of performing computations, by engineering DNA nucleotide sequences to encode for the necessary protein components. The synthetically designed DNA molecules themselves function in a particular biocomputer system.Thus, implementing nano bio technology to design and produce synthetically designed proteins, as well as the design and synthesis of artificial DNA molecules, can allow the construction of functional bio computers, e.g., Computational Genes. Biocomputers can also be designed with cells as the basic components. Chemically induced dimerization systems can be used to make logic gates from individual cells. These logic gates are activated by chemical agents that induce interactions between previously non-interacting proteins and trigger some observable change in the cell.
The economical benefit of biocomputers lies in the ability of all living organisms to self replicate and self assemble into functional components. All necessary proteins are modified to serve as a biocomputer. All those proteins are synthesized inside an biological cell from a single DNA molecule itself replicate many times. The characteristics oof biological molecules make their production highly efficient and relatively inexpensive. In comparison with electronic computers that requires manual production with machinery, biocomputers produced in large scale from cultures without machinery to assemble.
Because of the availability and potential economic efficiency associated with producing biomolecules and biocomputers,the advancement of the technology of biocomputers is a popular, rapidly growing subject of research that is likely to see much progress in the future.The capabilities of biocomputers are becoming increasingly sophisticated.
The capabilities of these biocomputers are still largely premature in comparison to commercially available non-bio computers.In the next years to come, it is sure that improvement in the area of biocomputer computational ability advance and biocomputer became a human brain.It will surely perform complex computational calculations and be more powerful.